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Current Understanding of Dyslexia and Pilot Data on Efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Psychotherapy (MBR-RAM) Model

[ Vol. 7 , Issue. 1 ]


Basant Pradhan*, Tapan Parikh, Madhusmita Sahoo, Richard Selznick and Michael Goodman   Pages 44 - 55 ( 12 )


Background: Dyslexia, a heterogeneous syndrome, is the most recognized Developmental Reading Disorder (DRD) with 5-17% prevalence and poses as a significant disability. Its core deficits are: Phonological deficits, poor visual attention span, selective deficits in complex serial visual search tasks, sustained visual attention problems, visuospatial functioning and difficult image reproduction from memory. Much remains to be accomplished clinically to address these deficits.

Methods: Mindfulness Based Rehabilitation of Reading, Attention & Memory (MBR-RAM©) is a translational mindfulness based cognitive behavioral therapy developed by the first author. MBR-RAM uses focused attention enhancement visual meditation techniques (Sanskrit: trataka) in therapist-assisted and home-practice formats to rehabilitate reading deficits, visual inattention, visual motor incoordination, information processing speed and visual memory. Visual motor incoordination indicates inability to control hand movements guided by the visual cues while reading letters. Three Caucasian subjects in this study included an 8-year-old girl and two boys aged 9 and 10 years. The objectives were to study the changes pre- and post-intervention with respect to their scores on the various clinical and neuropsychological measures.

Results: Compared to the baseline, all three subjects showed clinical and statistically significant improvements in the outcome measures, which were sustained for at least 6 months after study completion. There were no adverse effects in them.

Conclusion: Results of this pilot study indicate that MBR-RAM© is a feasible, low cost treatment, which is effective for rehabilitating some important deficits of dyslexia. The results need replication in future studies with better methodology to make definite conclusions.


Dyslexia, learning disorder, reading disorder, yoga, mindfulness, trataka.


401 Haddon Avenue, E&R Building, Camden, NJ, 08103, Department of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Department of Pediatrics, Cooper University Health System and Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ, 08103, Department of Pediatrics, Cooper University Health System and Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ, 08103

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